1. chain-of-dogs:

    Chinggis Khan’s encampment.
    From an early 14th century manuscript of Rashid al-Din.

    More on the Mongol Empire.

  2. invictascientia:

    Top: Arghun Khan’s letter to Philippe le Bel in Mongolian language and script, 1289.

    "Under the power of the Eternal Heaven. Under the majesty of the Khan (Kublai Khan). Arghun our word. To the Rey da France (King of France). Last year you sent your ambassadors led by Mar Bar Sawma telling us: "If the soldiers of the Il-Khan ride in the direction of Misir (Egypt) we ourselves will ride from here and join you," which words we have approved and said (in reply) "Praying to Tengri (Heaven) we will ride on the last month of winter on the year of the tiger and descend on Dimisq (Damascus) on the 15th of the first month of spring." Now, if, being true to your words, you send your soldiers at the appointed time and, worshiping Heaven, we conquer those citizens (of Damascus together), we will give you Orislim (Jerusalem). How can it be appropriate if you were to start amassing your soldiers later than the appointed time and appointment? What would be the use of regretting afterwards? Also, if, adding any additional messages, you let your ambassadors fly (to us) on wings, sending us luxuries, falcons, whatever precious articles and beasts there are from the land of the Franks, the Power of Tengri and the Majesty of the Khan only knows how we will treat you favorably. With these words we have send Muskeril (Buscarello) the Khorchi. Our writing was written while we were at Khondlon on the sixth khuuchid of the first month of summer on the year of the cow."

    Bottom: Oljeitu’s letter to Philippe le Bel in 1305.

    Oljeitu Sultan our word. To the Iridfarans (King of France) Sultan. How could it be forgotten that from ancient times all you sultans of the Frank citizens have dealt peacefully with our good great-grandfather (Hulegu Khan), good grandfather (Abaga Khan), good father (Arghun Khan) and good brother (Ghazan Khan), esteeming us near although you are far, pronouncing your various words and sending your ambassadors and gifts of health-wishing?”

    "Our nation has been interlocked (peacefully connected) from the land of the Nankhiyas (plural for ‘Chinese’) where the sun rises to the Talu Ocean (Mediterranean Sea) and our roads have been tied together."

    Oljeitu, also known as Muhammad Khodabandeh, was the son of Arghun Khan, the Illkhan ruler (Mongolian Persia). He continued diplomatic relation established by his father (as shown on the first letter) with the West hoping for an alliance with European Christian nations to counter the Mamlukes despite him having converted to Islam.

    He also attempted to establish Franco-Mongol alliance by sending a Mongol embassy led by Buscarello de Ghizolfi to the French king Philip IV the Fair of France, Pope Clement V, and Edward I of England. Only letter for Philip IV survived:

    "We, Sultan Oljaitu. We speak. We, who by the strength of the Sky, rose to the throne (…), we, descendant of Genghis Khan (…). In truth, there cannot be anything better than concord. If anybody was not in concord with either you or ourselves, then we would defend ourselves together. Let the Sky decide!"

    And another one from French National Archive.

    "Now all of us, Timur Khagan, Tchapar, Toctoga, Togba and ourselves, main descendants of Gengis-Khan, all of us, descendants and brothers, are reconciled through the inspiration and the help of God. So that, from Nangkiyan (China) in the Orient, to Lake Dala our people are united and the roads are open."

    (via chain-of-dogs)

  3. invictascientia:

    Collage portraits of Mongolian empresses of the Yuan Dynasty, c. 14th century from Dschingis Khan und seine Erben (Muenchen, 2005). Respectively:

    All by unknown artist, the original portraits are kept in National Palace Museum (Taipei, Taiwan).

    (via chain-of-dogs)


  4. chain-of-dogs:

    A new article by Fenner, Tumen and Khatanbaatar (2014) examines changes in diet of the Mongolian people during this period of change in the 13th century. Primarily, they focus on whether diet changed more at the elite level, as these individuals would have greater access to foreign items. As the Mongol Empire began, there is little written information available from themselves- however there are accounts of them from foreigners. By the early 13th century, there is written information from the elite of the Mongolian Empire, though it is limited. As pastoralists, it is expected that diet of both elite and commoners will be focused on meat and other animal by-products. Their own history describes the range of meats they ate, and accounts from others also notes a preference for meat and dairy over vegetables or grains. Some grains are described in texts, but it is unknown whether this represents rice or millet- and it was introduced into the diet later as the Mongols conquered agricultural territories.

    More on the Mongol Empire.

  5. rumelia:

    Eurasian Avar findings from Ozora-Tótipuszta, Hungary.

    (Source: Wikipedia, via adokal)

  6. fyeah-history:

    The sacking of Suzdal by Batu Khan in 1238
    Batu Khan (c. 1207–1255) was a Mongol ruler and founder of the Ulus of Jochi (or Golden Horde), the sub-khanate of the Mongol Empire. Batu was a son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan. His ulus was the chief state of the Golden Horde (or Kipchak Khanate), which ruled Rus and the Caucasus for around 250 years, after also destroying the armies of Poland and Hungary. “Batu” or “Bat” literally means “firm” in the Mongolian language. After the deaths of Genghis Khan’s sons, he became the most respected prince called agha (elder brother) in the Mongol Empire.

    (via chain-of-dogs)

  7. magictransistor:

    Kitab al-Buhan. Book of Wonders. 1300s.

    (via shadowtobabylon)

  8. koffeetumbler:

    Female Head with Floral Head Covering, Fritware, c1100, Kashan, Iran

    This week on koffeetumbler : The History, Politics and Artistry of Veils

    (Source: commons.wikimedia.org, via perpetual-inspiration)

  9. ytellioglu:

    12-13. yy. Türk Selçuklu Bronz Ritüel Balta…Ortada Bağdaş Kurup Oturmuş ve elinde And Kadehi olan Bir Figür. Başında Uygur sanatı tarzında bir hale ve halenin Üzerinde ruhları sembolize eden bir kuş..


  10. "Though Mongol control of Syria was ephemeral, the Mamluks of Egypt - a dynasty of former slave soldiers who had seized power in 1250 - realized that they stood little chance of defeating a determined invasion, and therefore decided to take the battle to the Mongols while they were unprepared. Having secured the neutrality of the Crusaders, who had provoked Mongol attacks on Sidon and in Galilee, the Mamluks advanced to Ayn Jalut, or the Well of Goliath, where they defeated Ket-Buga in a hard-fought battle. The desertion of some of the Mongols’ Syrian troops may have been the pivotal point in the engagement. While this battle is often viewed as a turning point in history since the Mongols’ advance was halted, it owes it’s claim not so much to the Mamluk victory itself, as tremendous as it was, as to events that occurred in China."

    From The Mongol Art of War, by Timothy May.

    More on the Mongol Empire.

    (via chain-of-dogs)